Модель мультизіркової цілі для астрономічної орієнтації єгипетських пірамід Давнього царства

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.sidebar##

  О. В. Пучков

Анотація

В епоху пірамід єгиптяни спорудили деякі з найбільш знакових пам’ятників у світі, але їх метод вирівнювання та точні дати будівництва залишаються предметом суперечок. Ця стаття представляє нові археоастрономічні докази, які пояснюють як нібито нерегулярну орієнтацію пірамід Давнього царства, так і пропонують нове вирішення проблеми датування. Аналіз вирівнювання пірамід, побудованих під час 3–6 династій, показує, що вони були орієнтовані не на північ, як передбачається однією з панівних сучасних моделей, а на видатні зірки в північному циркумполярному регіоні. Чітка закономірність виявляється, коли залежне від часу положення цих зірок порівнюється з орієнтацією ряду пірамід, вирівнювання яких відомо. Шаблон пояснює всі наявні азимутальні дані пірамід від Джосера до Унаса та передбачає більш давні дати будівництва цих споруд із похибкою, що не перевищує п’ять років. Підсумовуючи, вік Давнього царства приблизно на два століття старший, ніж традиційно вважається згідно з наявними текстовими реконструкціями єгипетської хронології. Ці результати є сумісними з радіовуглецевими даними, отриманими зі зразків, зібраних у відомих спорудах Давнього царства, таким чином узгоджуючи археологічні дані з археоастрономічними доказами. Єгипетська хронологія служить стандартом для встановлення регіональних хронологій на всьому стародавньому Близькому Сході III тис. до н. е., отже, переглянута хронологія, заснована на представлених тут висновках, вимагає нового погляду на історичні шкали інших цивілізацій, сучасних Стародавньому Єгипту.

Як цитувати

Пучков, О. В. (2023). Модель мультизіркової цілі для астрономічної орієнтації єгипетських пірамід Давнього царства. Сходознавство, (91), 3–68. https://doi.org/10.15407/skhodoznavstvo2023.91.003
Переглядів статті: 270 | Завантажень PDF: 98

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

Ключові слова

піраміди Давнього царства, астрономічна орієнтація, Месхетіу, нетлінні зірки, єгипетська хронологія, археоастрономія

Посилання

Arnold D. (1991), Building in Egypt. Pharaonic Stone Masonry, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Arquier B. (2020), “La Grande Ourse et les Constellations du Nord: Une Typologie”, Journal of the Hellenic Institute of Egyptology, 3, pp. 1–10.

Bauval R. (1993), “Cheop’s Pyramid: A New Dating Using the Latest Astronomical Data”, Discussions in Egyptology, 26, pp. 5–6.

Beckerath J. von (1962), “The Date of the End of the Old Kingdom of Egypt”, JNES, Vol. 21 (2), pp. 140–7. https://doi.org/10.1086/371680

Beckerath J. von (1966), “Die Dynastie der Herakleopoliten (9./10. Dynastie)”, ZÄS, Bd. 94, pp. 13–20. https://doi.org/10.1524/zaes.1966.93.1.13

Beckerath J. von (1997), Chronologie des pharaonischen Ägypten, von Zabern, Mainz.

Belmonte J. (2001), “On the Orientation of Old Kingdom Egyptian Pyramids”, Archaeoastronomy, Vol. 32 (26), pp. S1–20.

Belmonte J. and Shaltout M. (eds) (2009), In Search of Cosmic Order: Selected Essays on Egyptian Archaeoastronomy, American University in Cairo Press, Cairo. https://doi.org/10.1177/002182860103202601

Bomhard, A. –S. von (2012), “Ciels d’Égypte. Le ‘ciel du sud’ et le ‘ciel du nord’ ”, Égypte nilotique et méditerranéenne, T. 5, pp. 73–102.

Bonani G., Haas H., Hawass Z., Lehner M., Nakhla S., Nolan J., Wenke R. and Wölfli W. (2001), “Radiocarbon Dates of Old and Middle Kingdom Monuments in Egypt”, Radiocarbon, Vol. 43 (3), pp. 1297–320. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033822200038558

Borchardt L. (1899), “Ein altägyptisches astronomisches Instrument”, ZÄS, Bd. 37, pp. 10–7. https://doi.org/10.1515/zaes-1899-0103

Borchardt L. (1900), “Vorläufiger Bericht über die Ausgrabungen bei Abusir im Winter 1899/1900. I. Das Re-Heiligtum des Königs Ne-woser-re”, ZÄS, Bd. 38, pp. 94–100. https://doi.org/10.1524/zaes.1900.38.jg.94

Borchardt L. (1937), Längen und Richtungen der vier Grundkanten der grossen Pyramide bei Gise, J. Springer, Berlin.

Breasted J. (1906–1907), Ancient Records of Egypt: Historical Documents from the Earliest Times to the Persian Conquest, collected, edited, and translated, with Commentary, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Bronk Ramsey C., Dee M., Rowland J., Higham T., Harris S., Brock F., Quiles A., Wild E., Marcus E. and Shortland A. (2010), “Radiocarbon-Based Chronology for Dynastic Egypt”, Science, No. 328(5985), pp. 1554–7. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1189395

Brovarski E. (1989), “The Inscribed Material of the First Intermediate Period from Naga-ed-Dêr”, American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 89 (4), pp. 581–4. https://doi.org/10.2307/504200

Brugsch H. (1880a), Hieroglyphisch-demotisches Wörterbuch, Bd. 5, Leipzig.

Brugsch,H. (1880b), Hieroglyphisch-demotisches Wörterbuch, Bd. 6, Leipzig.

Bruins H. and Plicht J. (2001), “Radiocarbon Challenges Archaeo-Historical Time Frameworks in the Near East: the Early Bronze Age of Jericho in Relation to Egypt”, Radiocarbon, Vol. 43 (3), pp. 1321–32. https://doi.org/10.2307/504200

Cauville S. (2007), “Dendara”, T. XII (I), Institut français d’archéologie orientale du Caire, Le Caire.

Chassinat E. (1918), “Le temple d’Edfou”, T. II, MMAF, 11, Institut français d’archéologie orientale du Caire, Le Caire.

Chassinat E. (1928), “Le temple d’Edfou”, T. III, MMAF, 20, Institut français d’archéologie orientale du Caire, Le Caire.

Chassinat E. (1932), “Le temple d’Edfou”, T. VII, MMAF, 24, Institut français d’archéologie orientale du Caire, Le Caire.

Chassinat E. (1934), “Le temple d’Edfou”, T XII, MMAF, 29, Institut français d’archéologie orientale du Caire, Le Caire.

Clagett M. (1995), Ancient Egyptian Science, Volume II: Calendars, Clocks and Astronomy, American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia.

Clayton P. (1994), Chronicle of the pharaohs, Thames and Hudson, London.

Dash G. (2013), “How the pyramid builders may have found their true north”, AERAGRAM, No. 14, pp. 8–14.

Dash G. (2015), “Simultaneous Transit and Pyramid Alignments: Were the Egyptians’ Errors in Their Stars or in Themselves?”, available at: http://glendash.com/downloads/archaeology/working-papers/Simultaneous_Transit.pdf (accessed 28 December 2019).

Dash G. (2017), “Occam’s Egyptian razor: the equinox and the alignment of the pyramids”, Journal of Ancient Egyptian Architecture, No. 2, pp. 1–8.

De Lorenzis A. and Orofino V. (2018), “Comparison of astronomical software programs for archaeoastronomical applications”, Astronomy and Computing, No. 25, pp. 118–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ascom.2018.09.006

Dee M., Ramsey С., Shortland A., Higham T. and Rowland J. (2009), “Reanalysis of the Chronological Discrepancies Obtained by the Old and Middle Kingdom Monuments Project”, Radiocarbon, Vol. 51 (3), pp. 1061–70. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033822200034111

Dee M., Wengrow D., Shortland A., Stevenson A., Brock F., Girdland Flink L. and Bronk Ramsey C. (2013), “An absolute chronology for early Egypt using radiocarbon dating and Bayesian statistical modelling”, Proceedings of the Royal Society, Vol. 469 (2159). https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.2013.0395

Depuydt L. (1998), “Ancient Egyptian Star Clocks and Their Theory”, Bibliotheca Orientalis, T. 55, pp. 5–44. https://doi.org/10.2143/BIOR.55.1.2015844

Depuydt L. (2000), “Sothic Chronology and the Old Kingdom”, JARCE, Vol. 37, pp. 167–86. https://doi.org/10.2307/40000529

Dorner J. (1981), Die Absteckung und astronomische Orientierung ägyptischer Pyramiden, PhD Thesis, Innsbruck.

Dorner J. (1986), “Form und Ausmaße der Knickpyramide. Neue Beobachtungen und Messungen”, MDAIK, Bd. 42, pp. 43–58.

Dorner J. (1998), Neue Messungen an der Roten Pyramide. In: Stationen: Beiträge zur Kulturgeschichte Ägyptens: Rainer Stadelmann gewidmet, von Zabern, Mainz am Rhein.

Dümichen J. (1877), Baugeschichte des Denderatempels und Beschreibung der einelen Theile des Bauwerkes, Trübner, Strassburg.

Edwards I. E. S. (1947), The Pyramids of Egypt, Penguin Books, London.

Engelbach R. (1934), “A Foundation Scene of the Second Dynasty”, JEA, Vol. 20 (3/4), pp. 183–4. https://doi.org/10.2307/3854737

Erman A. and Grapow H. (eds) (1926), Wörterbuch der aegyptischen Sprache, Bd. 1, Leipzig.

Erman A. and Grapow H. (eds) (1929), Wörterbuch der aegyptischen Sprache, Bd. 3, Leipzig.

Erman A. and Grapow H. (eds) (1930), Wörterbuch der aegyptischen Sprache, Bd. 4, Leipzig.

Fakhry A. (1961), The Monuments of Sneferu at Dahshur. The valley temple. Part I: The temple reliefs, General Organisation for Government Printing Office, Cairo.

Faulkner R. (1966), “The King and the Star-Religion in the Pyramid Texts”, JNES, Vol. 25(3), pp. 153–61. https://doi.org/10.1086/371869

Faulkner R. (1991), A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian, Griffith Institute, Oxford.

Gadre K. (1998), La Signification Astronomique des Pyramides D’Egypte. L’ordre celeste recree, Maison de Vie, Paris.

Gallo C. (1998), L’astronomia egizia. Dalle scoperte archeologiche alla misurazione del tempo, Padua.

Gardiner A. (1957), Egyptian Grammar. Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs. 3rd Ed., Griffith Institute, Oxford.

Gautschy R. (2011a), “Monddaten aus dem Archiv von Illahun: Chronologie des Mittleren Reiches”, ZÄS, Bd. 138 (1), pp. 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1524/zaes.2011.0002

Gautschy R. (2011b), “Der Stern Sirius im Alten Ägypten”, ZÄS, Bd. 138 (2), pp. 116–31. https://doi.org/10.1524/zaes.2011.0010

Gautschy R., Habicht M., Galassi F., Rutica D., Rühli F. and Hannig R. (2017), “A new astronomically based chronological model for the Egyptian Old Kingdom”, Journal of Egyptian History, Vol. 10 (2), pp. 69–108. https://doi.org/10.1163/18741665-12340035

Gensler F. (1872), Die Thebanischen Tafeln stündlicher Sternaufgänge. Aus den Gräbern der Könige Ramses VI. und Ramses IX. für die 24 halbmonatlichen Epochen des Jahres 1262/61 v. Chr., nach inductiver Methode erklärt von Dr. Friedrich W. C. Gensler, Leipzig.

Goyon G. (1974), “Kerkasôre et l’ancien observatoire d’Eudoxe”, BIFAO, T. 74, pp. 135–47.

Goyon G. (1976), “Le grand cercle d’or du temple d’Osymandyas”, BIFAO, T. 76, pp. 297–300.

Greschel J. (1857), Outlines of astronomy, London.

Grigoriev S. (2015), “Inclinations of Egyptian Pyramids and Finding of the Divine Essence”, Archaeoastronomy and Ancient Technologies, Vol. 3 (1), pp. 1–27.

Grimal N. (1992), A history of Ancient Egypt, Blackwell Publishing.

Gundacker R. (2006), “Untersuchungen zur Chronologie der Herrschaft Snofrus”. Beiträge zur Ägyptologie 22, Wien.

Haack S. (1984), “The astronomical orientation of the Egyptian pyramids”, Archaeoastronomy, Vol. 7, pp. 119–25. https://doi.org/10.1177/002182868401500704

Haas H., Divine J., Wenke R., Lehner, M., Wolfli W. and Bonani G. (1987), “Radiocarbon chronology and the historical calendar in Egypt”, in: Aurenehe O., Evin J. and Hours F. (eds.) Chronologies in the Near East. Relative chronologies and absolute chronology 16,000–4,000 B.P., BAR, Oxford, pp. 585–606.

Habicht M., Gautschy R., Siegmann R., Rutica D. and Hannig R. (2015), “A New Sothis Rise on a Small Cylindrical Jar from the Old Kingdom”, GM, Hft. 247, pp. 41–50.

Hannig, R. (2009), Großes Handwörterbuch Ägyptisch-Deutsch (2800–950 v. Chr.), Mainz, P. von Zabern.

Hornung E., Krauss R. and Warburton D. (eds) (2006), Ancient Egyptian Chronology, Brill, Leiden. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789047404002

Isler M. (1989), “An Ancient Method of Finding and Extending Direction”, JARCE, Vol. 26, pp. 191–206.

Isler M. (1991a), “The Merkhet”, Varia Aegyptiaca, Vol. 7(1), pp. 53–67.

Isler M. (1991b), “The Gnomon in Egyptian Antiquity”, JARCE, Vol. 28, pp. 155–85. https://doi.org/10.2307/40000578

Isler M. (2001), Sticks, Stones and Shadows: Building the Egyptian Pyramids, University of Oklahoma.

Jüngling J. and Höflmayer F. (2023), “Early Dynastic/Old Kingdom Egypt and the Early Bronze Age Levant: The History of the 3rd and 4th Dynasties and New Radiocarbon Dates in Dialogue”, Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections, Vol. 37, pp. 191–222.

Karkowski J. (2016), “‘A Temple Comes to Being’. A Few Comments on the Temple Foundation Ritual”, Études et Travaux de Institut des Cultures Méditerranéennes et Orientales de l’Académie Polonaise des Sciences, T. 29, pp. 111–23.

Keenan D. (2002), “Why early-historical radiocarbon dates downwind from the Mediterranean are too early”, Radiocarbon, Vol. 44 (1), pp. 225–37. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033822200064833

Kitchen K. (1969), Ramesside inscriptions: historical and biographical, Vol. II, Blackwell, Oxford.

Kozloff A. (1994), “Star-Gazing in Ancient Egypt”, in: Berger C. et al. (eds), Hommages à Jean Leclant, T. IV, BdÉ, 1061–4, Institut français d’archéologie orientale du Caire, Le Caire, pp. 169–76.

Krauss R. (1985), Sothis- und Monddaten, Studien zur astronomischen und technischen Chronologie Altägyptens, Gerstenberg, Hildesheim.

Krauss R. (1996), “The Length of Sneferu’s Reign and How Long It Took to Build the ‘Red Pyramid’ ”, JEA, Vol. 82, pp. 43–50. https://doi.org/10.1177/030751339608200110

Krauss R. (1998), “Wenn und aber: Das Wag-Fest und die Chronologie des Alten Reiches”, GM, Hft. 162, pp. 53–64.

Krauss R. (2006a), “¿Las ilusiones perdidas? Recientes intentos en Arqueoastronomia en Egipto”, Boletín de la Asociación Española de Egiptología, T. 16, pp. 101–12.

Krauss, R. (2006b), “Egyptian Sirius/Sothic Dates, and the Question of the Sirius-based Lunar Calendar”, in: Hornung E., Krauss R. and Warburton D. (eds), Ancient Egyptian Chronology, Brill, Leiden, pp. 439–57. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789047404002_030

Krauss R. and Warburton D. (2009), “The basis for the Egyptian dates”, Monographs of the Danish Institute at Athens, Vol. 10, pp. 125–44.

Kruglyakov O. (2016), “A Khafra vypal...”, available at: https://cloud.mail.ru/public/uBqK/yYUwnNHyb (accessed 10 November 2019). (In Russian).

Krupp E. (1983), Echoes of the Ancient Skies: The Astronomy of Lost Civilizations, Harper & Row, New York.

Lauer J. (1960a), Observations sur les Pyramides, Institut français d’archéologie orientale, Le Caire.

Lauer J. (1960b), “Recension. Zbyněk Žába: L’orientation astronomique dans l’ancienne Égypte, et la précession de l’axe du monde”, BIFAO, T. 60, pp. 171–83.

Lauer J. (1962), Histoire monumentale des pyramides d’Égypte. I, Les pyramides à degrés, Institut français d’archéologie orientale, Le Caire.

Lehner M. (1996), “Z500 and the Layer Pyramid of Zawiyet el-Aryan”, in: Manuelian P. (ed.), Studies in Honor of William Kelly Simpson, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, pp. 506–22.

Lehner M. (1997), The Complete Pyramids, Thames and Hudson, London.

Lehner M., Nakhla S., Hawass Z., Bonani G., Wolfli W., Haas H., Wenke R., Nolan J., and Wetterstrom W. (1999), “Dating the Pyramids”, Archaeology, Vol. 52 (5), pp. 26–33.

Leitz C. (1989), Studien zur ägyptischen Astronomie, Ägyptologische Abhandlungen, 49, Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden.

Leitz C. (1995), Altägyptische Sternuhren, Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta, 62, Peeters, Leuven.

Lexa F. (1950), “Deux notes sur l’astronomie des anciens Égyptiens”, Archiv orientální 18 (3), pp. 442–50.

Lightbody D. (2020), “Moving heaven and earth for Khufu: Were the Trial Passages at Giza components of a rudimentary stellar observatory?”, Journal of Ancient Egyptian Architecture, No. 4, pp. 29–53.

Locher K. (1985), “Probable Identification of the Ancient Egyptian Circumpolar Constellations”, Archaeoastronomy 9 (JHA, Vol. 16), pp. S152–3. https://doi.org/10.1177/002182868501600907

Luft U. (1994), “The Date of the Wagy Feast: Considerations on the Chronology of the Old Kingdom”, in: Spalinger A. (ed.), Revolutions in Time: Studies in Ancient Egyptian Calendars, Van Siclen Books, San Antonio, pp. 39–43.

Luft U. (2006), Urkunden zur Chronologie der späten 12. Dynastie: Briefe aus Illahun, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien.

Lull J. (2008), “Meschetiu in der Mythologie und der Orientierung der ägyptischen Tempel”, Acta Praehistorica et Archaeologica, T. 40, pp. 85–92. https://doi.org/10.1553/0x000487ca

Magdolen D. (2005), “The Development of the Sign of the Ancient Egyptian Goddess Seshat down to the End of the Old Kingdom: Analysis and Interpretation. Part Two”, Asian and African Studies, Vol. 14 (2), pp. 196–227.

Magli G. (2008), “Akhet Khufu: Archaeo-astronomical Hints at a Common Project of the Two Main Pyramids of Giza, Egypt”, Nexus Network Journal: Architecture and Mathematics, Vol. 11, pp. 35–50. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00004-008-0080-3

Magli G. (2013), Architecture, Astronomy and Sacred Landscape in Ancient Egypt, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139424554

Magli G. (2016), “The Giza ‘written’ landscape and the double project of King Khufu”, Time and Mind, Vol. 9 (1), pp. 57–74. https://doi.org/10.1080/1751696X.2016.1142291

Málek J. (1982), “The Original Version of the Royal Canon of Turin”, JEA, Vol. 68, pp. 93–106.

Manning S. (2006), “Radiocarbon Dating and Egyptian Chronology”, in: Hornung E., Krauss R., and Warburton D. (eds), Ancient Egyptian Chronology, Brill, Leiden, pp. 327–55.

Maragioglio V. and Rinaldi C. (1963), L’Architettura delle piramidi Menfite. Parte II – Addena, Rapallo, Tipografia Artale, Torino.

Maravelia A.–A. (2003), “The Stellar Horizon of Khufu: Archaeoastronomy, Egyptology … and some Imaginary Scenaria”, in: Bickel S. and Loprieno A. (eds), Basel Egyptology Prize 1: Junior Research in Egyptian History, Archaeology, and Philology, Aegyptiaca Helvetica, 17, Schwabe, Basel, pp. 55–74.

Maravelia A. (2017), “The function and importance of some special categories of stars in the Ancient Egyptian funerary texts, 1: AḫAḫ– and iAd–stars”, in: Rosati G. and Guidotti M.–C. (eds), Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of Egyptologists (Florence, 23–30 August 2015), Archaeopress Egyptology, 19, Archaeopress, Oxford, pp. 368–76.

Mathieu B. (2001), “Travaux de l’Institut français d’archéologie orientale en 2000–2001”, BIFAO, T. 101, pp. 449–610.

McFadgen B. (1982), “Dating New Zealand archaeology by radiocarbon”, New Zealand Journal of Science, Vol. 25, pp. 379–92. https://doi.org/10.1017/S00338222000405

McFadgen B., Knox F. and Cole T. (1994), “Radiocarbon calibration curve variations and their implications for the interpretation of New Zealand prehistory”, Radiocarbon, 36, pp. 221–36.

Miranda N., Belmonte J. and Molinero M. (2008), “Uncovering Seshat: new insights at the stretching of the cord ceremony”, Archaeologia Baltica, T. 10, pp. 57–61.

Monnier F. (2018), “The satellite pyramid of Meidum and the problem of the pyramids attributed to Snefru”, Journal of Ancient Egyptian Architecture, No. 3, pp. 1–23.

Montet P. (1964), “Le rituel de fondation des temples égyptiennes”, Kêmi, No. 17, pp. 74–100.

Nell E. and Ruggles C. (2014), “The Orientations of the Giza Pyramids and Associated Structures”, JHA, Vol. 45 (3), pp. 304–60. https://doi.org/10.1177/0021828614533065

Nemes G. (2020), “The mythological importance of the constellation Msḫtjw in mortuary representations until the end of the New Kingdom”, Égypte nilotique et méditerranéenne, T. 13, pp. 1–61.

Neugebauer O. (1980), “On the Orientation of Pyramids”, Centaurus, No. 24, pp. 1–3. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0498.1980.tb00362.x

Neugebauer O. and Parker R. (1960), Egyptian Astronomical Texts I: The Early Decans, Brown University Press, London.

Neugebauer O. and Parker R. (1964), Egyptian Astronomical Texts II: The Ramesside Star Clocks, Brown University Press, London.

Neugebauer O. and Parker R. (1969), Egyptian Astronomical Texts III: Decans, Planets, Constellations and Zodiacs, Brown University Press, London.

Parker R. (1974), “Ancient Egyptian Astronomy”, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series A 276 (1257), pp. 51–65. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.1974.0009

Parker R. (1977), “The Sothic dating of the Twelfth and Eighteenth Dynasties”, in: Studies in honor of George R. Hughes, Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, Chicago, pp. 177–89.

Parkinson R. (2005), The Tale of the Eloquent Peasant, Griffith Institute, Oxford.

Petrie W. M. F. (1883), The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh, Field & Tuer, London.

Petrie W. M. F. (1888), A season in Egypt 1887, Field & Tuer, London.

Petrie W. M. F. (1892), Medum, Nutt, London.

Pogo A. (1930), “The Astronomical Ceiling-Decoration in the Tomb of Senmut (XVIIIth Dynasty)”, Isis, Vol. 14 (2), pp. 301–25. https://doi.org/10.1086/346509

Pogo A. (1931), “Zum Problem der Identifikation der nördlichen Sternbilder der alten Aegypter”, Isis, Vol. 16 (1), pp. 102–14. https://doi.org/10.1086/346586

Pogo A. (1932), “Calendars on Coffin Lids from Asyut (Second Half of the Third Millennium)”, Isis, Vol. 17 (1), pp. 6–24. https://doi.org/10.1086/346634

Polák B. (1952), “Astronomická orientace egyptských chrámů a pyramid”, Říše hvězd 1952(7–10), pp. 150–5, pp. 177–80, pp. 209–23.

Puchkov A. (2019), “ ‘Stretching of the cord’ ceremony for astronomical orientation of the Old Kingdom pyramids”, available at: https://www.academia.edu/41240818/_Stretching_of_the_cord_ceremony_for_astronomical_orientation_of_the_Old_Kingdom_pyramids (accessed 23 February 2022).

Rawlins D. (2003), “Giza Monumental Considerations”, DIO – The International Journal of Scientific History, 13 (1), p. 3.

Rawlins D. (2019), “Great Pyramid Alignment”, Griffith Observer, Vol. 83 (5), pp. 2–11.

Rawlins D. and Pickering K. (2001), “Astronomical orientation of the pyramids”, Nature, 412, p. 699. https://doi.org/10.1038/35089138

Relke J. and Ernest A. (2003), “Ancient Egyptian Astronomy: Ursa Major – Symbol of Rejuvenation”, Archaeoastronomy, XVII, pp. 64–80.

Renouf Le Page P. (1874), “Calendar of Astronomical Observations found in Royal Tombs of the XXth Dynasty”, Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archaeology, Vol. III, pp. 400–21.

Romer J. (2007), The Great Pyramid: Ancient Egypt Revisited, Ruggles, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Romieu A. (1902), “Сalcul de l’heure chez les anciens Egyptiens”, Recueil de travaux relatifs à la philologie et à l’archéologie égyptiennes et assyriennes: pour servir de bullletin à la Mission Française du Caire, 24, pp. 135–42.

Rose L. (1994), “The Astronomical Evidence for Dating the End of the Middle Kingdom of Ancient Egypt to the Early Second Millennium: A Reassessment”, JNES, Vol. 53 (4), pp. 237–61. https://doi.org/10.1086/373705

Rossi C. (2007), Architecture and Mathematics in Ancient Egypt, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Ryholt K. (2004), “The Turin King-List”, Egypt and the Levant, 14, pp. 135–55. https://doi.org/10.1553/AEundL14s135

Schaefer B. (2000), “The heliacal rise of Sirius and ancient Egyptian chronology”, JHA, Vol. 31(2), pp. 149–55. https://doi.org/10.1177/002182860003100204

Seidlmayer S. (1997), “Zwei Anmerkungen zur Dynastie der Herakleopoliten”, GM, Hft. 157, pp. 81–90.

Seidlmayer, S. (2006), “First Intermediate Period”, in: Hornung E., Krauss R. and Warburton D. (eds), Ancient Egyptian Chronology, Brill, Leiden, pp. 159–67.

Shaltout M. and Belmonte J. (2005), “On the Orientation of Ancient Egyptian Temples (1): Upper Egypt and Lower Nubia”, JHA, Vol. 36 (3), pp. 273–98. https://doi.org/10.1177/002182860503600302

Shaltout M., Belmonte J. and Fekri M. (2007a), “On the Orientation of Ancient Egyptian Temples (3): Key Points in Lower Egypt and Siwa Oasis, Part I”, JHA, Vol. 38 (2), pp. 141–60. https://doi.org/10.1177/002182860703800201

Shaltout M., Belmonte J. and Fekri M. (2007b), “On the Orientation of Ancient Egyptian Temples (3): Key Points in Lower Egypt and Siwa Oasis, Part II”, JHA, Vol. 38 (4), pp. 413–42. https://doi.org/10.1177/002182860703800402

Shaw I. (ed.) (2000), The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Smith W. (1965), Interconnections in the ancient Near-East: a study of the relationships between the arts of Egypt, the Aegean, and western Asia, Yale University Press, New Haven.

Smyth C. Piazzi (1874), Our inheritance in the Great Pyramid, London.

Sowada K. (2009), Egypt in the Eastern Mediterranean during the Old Kingdom: An Archaeological Perspective, Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis, 237, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht and Academic Press, Fribourg and Göttingen.

Spanel D. (1984), “The date of Ankhtifi of Mo’alla”, GM, Hft. 78, pp. 87–94.

Spence K. (1997), Orientation in ancient Egyptian royal architecture, PhD Thesis, Cambridge.

Spence K. (2000), “Ancient Egyptian chronology and the astronomical orientation of pyramids”, Nature, No. 408, pp. 320–4. https://doi.org/10.1038/35042510

Spence K. (2010), “Establishing direction in early Egyptian burials and monumental architecture: Measurement and the spatial link with the ‘other’”, in: Morley I. and Renfrew C. (eds), The archaeology of measurement: comprehending Heaven, Earth and time in ancient societies, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 170–9. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511760822.018

Stadelmann R. (1986), “Beiträge zur Geschichte des Alten Reiches. Die Länge der Regierung des Snofru”, MDAIK, Bd. 43, pp. 229–40.

Tedder C. (2007), “Khufu’s Akhet”, available at: https://sites.google.com/site/okadct/khufu’sakhet (accessed 12 January 2022).

Thuault S. (2020), “L’herminette et la cuisse, histoire d’un taureau parmi les étoiles”, BIFAO, 120, pp. 411–48. https://doi.org/10.4000/bifao.6927

Thurston H. (2003), “On the Orientation of Early Egyptian Pyramids”, DIO – The International Journal of Scientific History, 13 (1), pp. 4–11.

Verner M. (2006), “Contemporaneous evidence for the relative chronology of Dyns. 4 and 5”, in: Hornung E., Krauss R., and Warburton D. (eds), Ancient Egyptian Chronology, Brill, Leiden, pp. 124–43. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789047404002_011

Ward W. (1971), Egypt and the East Mediterranean World, 2200–1900 B.C.: Studies in Egyptian Foreign Relations During the First Intermediate Period, American University of Beirut, Beirut.

Waterbolk H. (1971), “Working with Radiocarbon Dates”, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society, Vol. 37 (2), pp. 15–33. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0079497X00012548

Weinstein J. (1973), Foundation Deposits in Ancient Egypt, PhD Thesis, University of Pennsylvania.

Wilkinson R. (1991), “New Kingdom Astronomical Paintings and Methods of Finding and Extending Direction”, JARCE, Vol. 28, pp. 149–54. https://doi.org/10.2307/40000577

Wilkinson T. (2000), Royal Annals of Ancient Egypt. The Palermo Stone and its associated fragments, Kegan Paul International, London and New York.

Zinner E. (1931), Die Geschichte der Sternkunde von den ersten Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart, Springer, Berlin. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-50909-4_15

Žába Z. (1953), L’orientation astronomique dans l’ancienne Égypte et la précession de l’axe du monde, Editions de l’académie Tchécoslovaque des Sciences, Prague.