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ISSN 2415-8712 (Online)
   ISSN 1682-671X (Print)

A. L. Parvus and his Influence on the Development of Left Forces in the Ottoman Empire on the Eve of the First World War

Heading: 
1Tortika, M
1DSc (History) Kharkiv State Academy of Culture 4, Bursatskyi uzviz, Kharkiv, 61057, Ukraine torteka@ukr.net
Shodoznavstvo 2021, 88:105-132
https://doi.org/10.15407/skhodoznavstvo2021.88.105
Section: History
Language: Ukrainian
Abstract: 

This research is dedicated to the study of the reasons for the organizational isolation and further development of the Ottoman Socialist Party (Osmanli sosiyalist firkasi). The process of consolidation of the Ottoman Socialist Party coincided with the stay in Constantinople of the German socialist of Russian origin A. L. Parvus (Gelfand). The political weight and importance of Parvus made him an expert on a number of issues related to the Marxist interpretation of the inner and foreign policies of the Ottoman Empire. As a result, his journalism, published in Turkey, reflected not only the process of creating a socialist party, but also it clarified the reasons for the weakness of this movement. In the future, the financial machinations of Parvus did not allow him to continue to positively influence on the development of Turkish socialism. His real interest in Constantinople and the Balkans was focused on contacts with the Young Turkish leadership of the country. As an economic adviser to the Young Turks, he was more interested in maintaining contacts between the Young Turk elite and the German representation in the Ottoman Empire than in implementing general socialist projects in Turkey and the Balkans. At the same time, he used mostly his influence as a well-known politician in socialist circles, so through the remaining socialist channels to strengthen the pacifist propaganda in the Balkan region (there is a documentary evidence of Parvus’s close contacts with a Romanian-Bulgarian socialist K. Rakovsky), supporting the geopolitical interests of the Triple Alliance countries before the First World War. It is clear that Ottoman socialism did not solve the similar strategic tasks, but also, as it gradually became clear, it also did not solve specific social aims. As a result, after the murder of Grand Vizier Mahmud Shevket Pasha in 1913, almost all worker and trade union organizations were closed in Turkey. One of them was the Ottoman Socialist Party, which actually completely ceased to exist.

Keywords: A. L. Parvus, K. Rakovsky, Ottoman Socialist Party, Unity and Progress Party, Young Turks

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